Origami Heaven

A paperfolding paradise

The website of writer and paperfolding designer David Mitchell

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A Chronology of Paperfolding History
 
This chronology is a work in progress. It is reasonably comprehensive for significant events relating to the history of recreational paperfolding between 1440 and 1937. Further significant events in paperfolding history will be added in due course. Suggestions for such significant events, especially early events, that ought to be recorded here are welcomed.

Where I record the earliest mention or illustration of a paperfolding design in the historical record this is to the best of my current knowledge and belief. This information may well change with further research as earlier instances come to light. If you already know of an early instance then please contact me with details of the evidence and I will update the chronology accordingly.

Introductory Notes

By paper in this chronology I mean any flat thin sheet made from cellulose fibres which are held together by chemical bonds. Card or cardboard is simply thick paper.

By folding I mean any change of direction induced by any means in the flat plane of the paper. By this definition rolling is a form of folding.

Paper is not, of course, the oldest foldable material. Foodstuffs such as dough, leaves and plant stems, animal skins and leather, cloth and felt, and metals were all folded long before we have any record of the folding of paper. Paper, however, folds in a very different way to these other materials.

While paper will both roll and take a soft fold, like cloth or leather, it will also take a hard fold, the line of which is retained when the fold is opened out. When a soft fold in paper is completely flattened some of the fibres and/or some of the bonds between the fibres along the resulting folded edge are damaged or broken allowing a hard fold to form. If the paper is opened out this line of damage can be seen as a crease. This crease forms a line of weakness which will act as a hinge allowing the paper to be refolded, then opened out again, along the same line of weakness. This folding and opening out can be repeated many times without obvious additional damage occurring and consequently without the paper separating into two parts, as metal, or leaves, for instance would be likely to.

We do not know when, where, or by whom paper was first invented, or whether it was invented accidentally or as the result of a deliberate experimental process. Nor do we know whether, if it was the result of a deliberate experimental process, it was intended to be a medium for writing or painting on, wrapping with, or something else entirely. We do not even know whether paper was invented just once in one place or several times independently in several places. What we do know, however, is that the earliest evidence for the existence and use of paper comes from China, and that we can trace the spread of the knowledge of how to make and use it from there to the rest of the civilised world.

Both paper itself and objects made of paper are ephemeral and the record we have of them at an early date relies largely on their chance survival or their mention or appearance in much less ephemeral sources such as books, fabrics, drawings and paintings. Like paper itself, it is likely that many of the paperfolding ideas and designs featured in this timeline are much older than the earliest evidence for their existence. Unfortunately, of course, we cannot know, even approximately, how much older they might actually be.

Writing the history of paperfolding is complicated by the fact that most historians of paper seem to concentrate almost exclusively on its manufacture and its use as a medium for writing, drawing or printing upon and largely ignore its history as a foldable material.

It is, however, obvious that paper cannot be folded unless there is a paper to fold and therefore the history of papermaking and paperfolding are inextricably linked. The quality and cost of paper are also factors. Poor quality paper folds badly. If good quality paper is an expensive commodity then it is likely that the folding of paper will largely be restricted to the moneyed class. If good quality paper is cheap then we would expect to see paper used for folding at all levels of society.

While this chronology is about the folding of paper I have also included some events relating to the folding of other materials where these are particularly relevant to the development of the story.

The four main reasons why paper has been, and still is, folded are:

1. To wrap other objects in order to protect them.

2. To keep powders, seeds and other small items both separate and together.

3. To reduce the size of a large sheet to make it easier to carry, store or bind together (and subsequently, of course, to thus allow a small folded sheet or object to be opened out to a larger size).

4. To conceal all, or part, of what is written, drawn, painted or printed upon it.

In recent centuries paperfolding has also come to be used for more widespread mathematical, scientific, educational, recreational and artistic purposes. In selecting the events to include in this chronology I have unashamedly concentrated on these more modern uses, without, I hope, forgetting that most folding of paper was originally done, and indeed still is done, for these four much more mundane purposes.

Sources of information are given on the more specific subject pages to which this timeline links.

The Chronology

8BC - China: Date of the earliest known fragment of paper, approximately 10 centimeters square and made from linen fibres, which was discovered during the restoration of an ancient garrison near the Yumen Pass at Dunhuang in northwest China. It has been written upon and is likely to have been part of a letter.

312-13- Iran: Most likely date of a group of five almost complete letters written in the Sogdian language, each of which had been folded several times, which were found in a ruined watchtower in Iran on the ancient Chinese frontier wall.

988 - Japan: The earliest known reference to a Kawahori, a pleated folding fan made of paper, appears in “Relationship with Japan of the Song History” which lists gifts given from Japan to the Song Dynasty in China.

1008 - Japan: Written around this date, the Tale of Genji makes frequent references to letters being folded or unfolded, for instance 'The Gosechi dancer, perhaps a little precocious, was delighted with the letter, which was on delicate blue paper very tastefully folded with papers of several colors.'

1100 - Japan: The oldest surviving kawahori, a pleated folding fan made of paper, the remains of which were found in the village of Akitsu in Japan, was made around this date.

1432 - France: A picture in an illustrated version of 'The Decameron' by Boccacio, now held in the library of Arsenal, in Paris, shows a box, which from its date may equally well have been folded from parchment as from paper.

1440 -The Netherlands: Illustration of the surprisingly sophisticated cut-and-fold Catherine of Cleves Box appears at the bottom of a page devoted to St Agatha, in the magnificent Flemish illustrated manuscript known as the Hours of Catherine of Cleves.

1490 - Venice: Publication of an edition of the book 'Tractatus de Spaera Mundi' written by John Holywood, an English mathematician and astronomer, who is also known as Johannes de Sacrobosco, which contains a picture illustrating a solar eclipse. The picture shows two paper boats floating in a stylised sea.

1502 - Italy: Approximate date of the manuscript De Viribus Quantitates by Luca Pacioli, possibly produced in collaboration with Leonardo da Vinci, which gives the first known descriptions of the Chinese Wallet, the Cherries Puzzle, three methods of sealing a letter without wax, one of which seems to be the Chickenwire Letterfold and another a precursor of the Love Knot Paperfold, explains how to cook in a frying pan made of folded paper and also gives a method of constructing an accurate right angle, without using compasses, by folding a sheet of paper twice.

1520 - Italy: Around this date a child playing with a Chinese Wallet is shown in a painting by the Italian painter Bernadino Luini.

1537 to 1603 - Japan: The oldest known representation of the Orizuru ( or paper crane) on a kosuka, a decorative panel intended to be attached to the hilt or sheath of a sword, can be reliably dated to this period.

1584 - England: Description of the magic tricks the Buddha Papers and the Fold and Switch Effect in 'The discoverie of witchcraft' by Reginald Scot, Esquire.

1606 - England: In his tragedy 'Macbeth' Shakespeare wrote of Lady Macbeth 'Since his majesty went into the field, I have seen her rise from her bed, throw her night-gown upon her, unlock her closet, take forth paper, fold it, write upon’t, read it, afterwards seal it, and again return to bed; yet all this while in a most fast sleep.' This is the only mention of paperfolding in Skakespeare. It was common practice at that time to fold a sheet of paper in half before beginning to write a document or a letter.

1614 - England: First performance of John Webster's play The Duchess of Malfi, the ms for which contains the words 'Our bodies are weaker than those Paper-prisons boys use to keep flies in ...' which is likely, but not certainly, a reference to the Waterbomb design.

1629 - Italy: Publication of 'Trattato delle piegature' by Mattia Giegher, the earliest known work on the folding of complex table decorations from starched paper napkins.

1636 - Germany: Publication of 'Deliciae physico-mathematicae, oder mathematische und philosophische Erquickstunden' by Daniel Schwenter, which contains the earliest known publication of the challenge of finding a way of standing a strip of paper on edge (which is solved by folding it in half).

1652 - Germany: Publication of 'Vollständiges und von neuem vermehrtes Trincir-Buch' by Georg Philipp Harsdörffer, which is largely a book about the carving of meat but also includes a section on the folding of tablecloths and napkins / serviettes.

1654 - England: In his 'Physiologia Epicuro-Gassendo-Charltonia' Walter Charleton wrote 'fold the Cloth, as Boyes do paper for Lanterns’.

1658 - England: Publication of 'Natural Magick' by John Baptista Porta, and English translation of 'Magiae Naturalis' by Giambattista della Porta which had first been published in Latin in Naples in 1558. The first edition contained only four books but this had gradually expanded to twenty books by 1584. The English translation contains mention of a Grocer's Cone and describes how to defeat a Letterlock.

1661 - England: In his 'Humane Industry' Thomas Powell wrote 'It is a pretty art that in a pleated paper ...men make one picture to represent several faces ...'

1663 - England: On 14th May 1663 Samuel Pepys recorded in his diary 'This day we received a baskett from my sister Pall, made by her of paper, which hath a great deal of labour in it for country innocent work.'

1676 - England: The earliest known description of Troublewit is published in the book 'Sports and Pastimes: or, Sport for the City, and Pastime for the Country; With a touch of Hocus Pocus, or Leger-demain: Fitted for the delight and recreation of Youth' by John Clark, at the Bible and Harp in West-Smithfield, London.

1680 - Japan: Short poem by Iharu Saikaku 'Rosei-ga yume-no cho-wa orisue' in the 'Ittyuya Dokugin Onsenku" (4000 Haikus Recited Alone All Day and Night) which can be translated as 'The butterflies in a beggar's dream would be folded paper.' This is often taken as a reference to the Ocho and Mecho - female and male butterflies - made from folded paper - which are used to decorate sake kettles or containers during traditional Japanese wedding ceremonies.

1682 - Japan: Iharu Saikaku's novel 'Koshoku Ichidai Otoko' ('The Life of an Amorous Man') refers to the hero, Yonosuke, making 'a pair of birds with folded paper' (identified as Hiyoku-no Tori - a pair of birds, one male and one female) and 'a pair of paper flowers attached to stems'. The specific designs referred to cannot be identified.

1682 - Italy: A description of the Pentagonal Knot appears in 'Prattische Astronomonische. Intorno all circoli della Sfera' by Urban d'Aviso.

1692 - Japan: Publication of the 'Onna Chohoki' (Women's Treasury) which contains a section devoted to the folding of formal wrappers / tsutsumi contains the earliest known drawing of Ocho and Mecho butterflies and of the Floral Sake Container Cover.

1694 - The Netherlands: an undelivered letter of this date in the form of a Square Letterfold can be found in the Brienne Postal Archive.

1697 - Japan: A scrapbook album of folded paper tsutsumi, including ocho and mecho butterflies, held in the collection of the Metropolitan Museum in New York, can be dated to the third month of 1697. The album served as the initiation into the art of origata (an early word for origami) for Kikuchi Fujiwara no Takehide by a master of the Ogasawara school of etiquette.

1704 - Japan: Drawing of a kimono decorated with drawings of the takara-bune (similar to the paperfold now known as the Chinese Junk).

1720 - Japan: Around this date Nishikawa Sukenobu (1671-1750) produced two prints showing ladies folding paper which show the Paper Boat, the Blow-Up Frog, Komoso, the Sanbo and an unidentifiable paper cube.

1721 - Japan: Publication of the book 'Wakoku Chiyekurabe' (Mathematical Contests) by Kan Chu Sen which includes the earliest known example of a fold and one cut puzzle.

1734 - Japan: Publication of 'Ranma Zushiki' by Hayato Ohoka which contains prints of decorations intended to enhance sliding room dividers. Among these is a print that shows a group of folded paper objects, including the Orizuru (the Crane), Komoso, the Paper Boat, the Sanbo on Legs and the Tematebako, a modular cube developed from six Menko.

1737 - France: Approximate date of a painting by Jean-Baptiste Simeon Chardin which shows a boy playing with folded playing and most probably using them as skittles.

1744 - France: An engraving by Jean Michel Liotard shows a young woman building a House of Cards using folded playing cards.

1757 - Spain: In a letter sent home to his mother from his school on the Isla Real de Leon, dated 10th July 1757, schoolboy Guillermo Pen wrote 'Con esta estratagema les hago callar; y despues para hacerme amigo de ellas, a unos les hago cometas, a otros barcas, navios, pajaros, y otras muchos cosas, todo de papel.' (With this ploy I silence them; and then to make friends with them, I make kites for some, for other boats, ships, birds, and many other things, all of paper.) His letter can be found in 'Entretenimiento de Los Ninos' by Monsieur Rochon, published in Madrid in both Spanish and French in 1779.

1759 - Germany: Publication of 'Onomatologia curiosa artificiosa et magica oder ganz natürliches Zauber-lexicon' which contains instructions for several paperfolding designs including a primitive form of the Paper Banger.

1760 - France: The Playing Card Monk / Capuchin appears in a watercolour entitled 'Le Petit de Chevilly et Sa Soeur' which can be dated to between 1740 and 1760.

1763 - Germany: By this date square Patenbriefs / Baptismal Certificates were being folded into a double blintz form, possibly to enclose gifts of money from a godparent.

1764 - Japan: Writing of 'Hoketsuki' (wrapping and tying) by Ise Sadatake, also sometimes called the 'Tsutsumi-no Ki', a book about the folding of tsutsumi or ceremonial paper wrappers for food and flowers in the tradition of the Ogasawara school of etiquette.

1765 - England: Publisher John Sayer devised a new kind of fold-out storybook which subsequently became known as Harlequinades.

1766 - Germany: Publication of 'Die Zehenmal Hundert und Eine Kunst' by Albrecht Ernst Friedrich von Crailsheim, which contains the earliest publication of the How to Climb Through a Playing Card effect.

1769 - USA: By this date puzzle purses were being decorated as love letters in Philadelphia (the practice having probably been brought to the USA by German immigrants).

1786 - England: 'Memoirs of Charles Mathews, Comedian', published in 1835, contains the information 'and we shot paper-darts' into the head master's wig so 'that it looked like a fretful porcupine'. This activity is dated to 'about the year 1786' when Mathews would have been 10 years old.

1787 - The Netherlands: Around this date pamphlets which fold to reveal alternative images were produced as propaganda in support of the Pattriottentijd rebellion.

1790 - Spain: Around this date Juan González del Castillo (1763-1800) premiered the sainete 'Los cómicos de la legua', a work in which the character Pasqual says 'although I went to school more than three years and a half, I only learned how to make monteras and birds of paper'.

1797 - Japan: Publication of the 'Senbazuru Orikata', a book of origami designs, woodcuts and poetry. The designs are created by cutting slits in large squares to divide them into several, or many, smaller, but not completely separate, squares and then folding each of these smaller squares into a paper crane. The cranes remain connected by beak, legs, or wingtip when the design is complete.

1797 - Japan: Publication of the 'Orikata Tehon Chushingura' a two page manuscript which shows how to fold and display characters for the famous Japanese story called the Chushingura (Treasury of Loyal Retainers) which relates how the forty-seven ronin attempt to avenge the death of their master, Asano Naganori.

1800 - France: A painting by an unknown artist, said to be of the 18th Century French School, so dated 1800 or earlier, shows both the Playing Card Cube and how such cubes can be joined together by interlocking their external flaps. This is the earliest known illustration of a macromodular origami design.

1800 - England: A painting by John Hill shows two carpenters in a workshop wearing Carpenters Hats created by folding paper.

1800 - Germany: A Jacob's Ladder toy with six foldinfg panels of somewhere around this date is held in collection of the Winterthur Museum.

1803 - USA: Date on the earliest known surviving Hexagonal Packet which was discovered in the attic of The Woodlands, a historic estate in Philadelphia, once owned by the botanist William Hamilton.

1806 - The Netherlands: The earliest known illustration in The West of the paperfold now known as the Chinese Junk occurs in the Dutch picture book "Hanenpoot" which Willem Bilderchijk wrote and illustrated for his young son Julius Willem.

1806 - France: The Cocotte / Pajarita appears in a painting by Jeanne Elisabeth Chaudet Husson (1767 to 1832) titled 'Marie-Laetitia Murat portant le buste de Napolean'.

1812 - Germany: Folding by Carl Adolf Senff of Horse and Rider designs (adapted from the Cocotte / Pajarita), some of which still survive.

1820 - England: According to his friend and biographer Thomas Jefferson Hogg, the romantic poet Percy Bysshe Shelley (1792 - 1822) had a passion for folding and sailing paper boats. There is no direct evidence that these were traditional Paper Boats but it seems likely that this must have been the case. In 1820 Shelley wrote 'Letter to Lady Gisborne', a poem which included the lines: 'And in this bowl of quicksilver - for I / Yield to the impulse of an infancy / Outlasting manhood - I have made to float / A rude idealism of a paper boat:'

1826 - Germany: Mention in Friedrich Froebel's book 'The Education of Man' of two children folding a dwelling house from a large sheet of cardboard, while others are busy folding from smaller sheets of paper all kinds of furniture - tables, chairs, sofas, beds, writing-desk, picture-frames, looking-glasses, etc.

1827 - France: Publication of 'Manuel Complet des Jeux de Société' by Elisabeth Celnart, which contains the earliest written instructions for folding / assembling the Cocotte / Pajarita, the Playing Card Cube and the Playing Card Monk, and the earliest known descriptions of the write and fold games 'L'Histoire' and L'Histoire en vers'.

1828 - England: Publication of 'The Boy's Own Book' by William Clarke, which contains instructions for the rather dangerous paperfolding effect known as the Paper Furnace.

1832 - France: A cartoon in the French satirical magazine 'La Caricature' issue 63 of 12 January 1832 includes an image of a Newspaper Hat.

1832 - France: A cartoon in the French satirical magazine 'La Caricature' issue 110 of 13th December 1832 includes images of two Double Boats and a Boat with Sail.

1833 - USA: Publication of 'The Girl's Own Book' by Lydia Marie Child which contains the earliest known mention of / diagrams for the Fold and Cut Latin Cross, the Fold and Cut Paper Honeycomb, a Paper Flower (called a Candle Ornament), fancy Paper Spills and the Froebel / German Star and advises that 'There are a variety of things made for the amusement of small children by cutting and folding paper; such as boats, soldiers' hats, birds, chairs, tables, baskets, &c. but they are very difficult to describe; and any little girl who wishes to make them, can learn of some obliging friend in a very few moments.'

1836 - USA: Mention of paper salt-cellars in the November 1836 issue of The Lady's Book (otherwise known as Godey's Lady Book), a women's magazine published in Philadelphia, USA, in a story entitled 'The Officers'.

1837 - Ukraine: The Playing Card Cube appears in the historical record in a painting by K. Pavlov (1792 - 1852).

1838 - Denmark: Publication of Hans Christian Anderson's children's fantasy story 'Den standhaftige soldat' (in English 'The Steadfast Tin Soldier') which includes reference to a paper boat, the design of which is not identified.

1845 - Japan: Writing of the Kan No Mado, a 63 page hand drawn ms containing diagrams for 48 varied paperfolded designs, including Ocho and Mecho butterflies, the Cicada, the Iris and the Blow-up Frog.

1845 - France: A painting of the Countess of Haussonville by Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres incidentally shows two visiting cards which have their corners folded over, probably to signify that a visit had been made in person.

1847 - Spain: Publication of 'Juegos de los Ninos' which includes the first clear mention of the Cocotte / Pajarita from a Spanish source and also, probably, the first mention of the Wagon / El Carro.

1850 - Germany: Around this date Friedrich Froebel included paper folding as an occupation in his Kindergarten syllabus.

1855 - England: Publication of 'The practical housewife, forming a complete Encyclopedia of domestic economy" by R. K. Philp which included diagrams showing hgow to fold the Pipe Cap from a napkin.

1857 - Germany: Writing of 'Klecksographien', a collection of poetry and inkblot images, by Justinus Kerner. Although written in this year the book was not published until 1890.

1858 - Discovery of the Mobius Strip by both Johann Benedict Listing and August Ferdinand Möbius.

1859 - Belgium / France: Publication of 'Manuel Pratique des Jardins D'Enfants de Friedrich Froebel' which included a list, though unfortunately not illustrations, of 55 recreational paperfolding designs. Not all these designs can be definitively identified, but many that can appear here in the historical record for the first time. These include the Salt Cellar, the Pepperpot, the Travel Bag, the Windmill, the Table, the Cigar Case, the Vase, the Boat with Fishbox, the Double Fishbox, the Large Box, the Solid Box (an un-unfoldable design of surprising sophistication), the Frame, the Mirror, the Gondola (the simpler form of the Chinese Junk developed from the windmill base), the Muff, the Jacket and Trousers, the Cross, the Double Hulled Boat, the Junk Box, the Picture Frame, the Looking Glass and, possibly, the Corner Cabinet.

1859 - England / USA: Publication of 'The Boy's Own Toymaker' by Ebenezer Landells which includes the earliest known diagrams for the Paper Boat, the Pyramidal Hat, the Catherine of Cleves Box, and the Fold and Cut Paper Parachute.

1860 - England / USA: Publication of 'The Girl's Own Toymaker' by Ebenezer and Alice Landells which includes the earliest appearance in the historical record of the Chain of Dolls and the Paper Doily.

1863 - The Netherlands: Publication of 'De Kleine Papierwerkers' by Elise Van Calcar which includes the earliest known diagrams for the Waterbomb (together with its variant the Hot Air Balloon), the Paper Banger and the Puzzle Purse, the first known reference to/illustrations of the Squid, the Cup and Saucer, the Steamship, the first illustrations of many of the designs mentioned in the earlier 'Manuel Pratique des Jardins D'Enfants de Friedrich Froebel' and designs for 25 of the letters of the alphabet (Q is omitted).

1863/4 - Germany: Publication of 'Spielbuch fur Knaben' by Hermann Wagner which also contains diagrams for the Bellows and the Newspaper Hat, the Cut and Fold Windmill, the Wind Wheel and what are probably the earliest known illustration of what would now be considered a true paper plane, the Paper Dart.

1864 - England: The earliest published instructions for making the Paper Dart, are published in 'Every Little Boy's Book'. This book also contains the first explanation of the paperfolding game 'Head, Body and Legs' which inspired the surrealist game 'Le Cadavre Exquis'.

1865 - Germany: Publication of 'Spielbuch für Mädchen' by Marie Leske.

1868/9 - France: A drawing of the Paper Crane / Orizuru appears on a membership card for a Parisian drinking club called the 'Societe de Jing-lar'. This is the earliest known appearance of this design in the West.

1869 - Germany: Publication of 'Der Kindergarten' by Hermann Goldammer.

1869 - England: Publication of 'Paradise of Childhood' by Edward Wiebe.

1870 - USA: William J. Canby read a paper to the Historical Society of Pennsylvania entitled 'The History of the Flag of the United States' in which he describes the upholsterer, and later flag-maker, Betsy Ross cutting a pentagram from folded paper using just a single cut, during an otherwise unsubstantiated, and probably apocryphal, visit to her home by George Washington in 1776.

1871/2 - France: Printed sheets for a paperfolding game called 'Jeu de Cameleonien' (The Chameleon Game) were sold during the Siege of Paris.

1872 - England: Publication of 'Hanky Panky' by W H Cremer, Jun.

1873 - England: Publication of 'The Popular Recreator', which contains the earliest known description of the games of Consequences, which depends on paperfolding, the game of 'Dart and Target', which uses darts made of wooden dowel with a pin at one end and a paper flight in the form of a waterbomb base at the other,and the earliest known diagrams for the Chinese Junk.

1874 - Germany: Publication of a revised edition of 'Der Kindergarten' by Hermann Goldammer.

1875 - Spain: The Pajarita with Pockets and Don Simon designs appears in drawings in 'Llibre Vert' by Apeles Mestre.

1876 - Japan: The first Japanese kindergarten was established at the Tokyo Women’s Normal School (now Ochanomizu University) by Clara Zitelmann. As a result of the establishment of Kindergarten in Japan some European paperfolds became known to the Japanese.

1876 - Germany: Publication of Des Kindes Erste Beschaftigungsbuch by E Barth and W Niederley which contains the earliest known illustrations of, and instructions for making, the Mitre and the Pencil Case, the Chair, the Shirt, the Fold and Slit Paper Trellis / Cage, the Fold and Slit Chevron Trellis /Cross, the Lotus (as a napkin fold), the Wallet, the Cut and Fold Windmill, the Woven Cross, the Puff Ball, the Witch's Ladder and the earliest known illustration of the Chickenwire Letterfold.

1878 - Japan: An untitled publication issued in 1878 by the kindergarten of the Tokyo Women's Normal School contains pictures of several paperfolds including the earliest known illustrations of the Kabuto and the Kikuzara.

1878 - England: Political propaganda fold-ins in the form of printed handkerchiefs are on sale to suggest that it is Disraeli who can best solve the 'Eastern Question'.

1879 - Japan: Publication of 'Yochien Ho Niju Yuki' by Seki Shinzo which contains drawings of children sitting at a table engaged in various kindergarten occupations.

1879 - Spain: Publication of 'Manual Teorico-Practico de Educacion Parvulos' by D Pedro de Alcantara Garcia.

1880 - England: Publication of 'The Kindergarten Principle' by Mary J Lyschinska which includes the first illustrations of the Scent Bottle and the Pair of Boots.

1880 - France: Publication of 'Un million de jeux et de plaisirs' by T de Moulidars.

1880 - France: Publication of 'Les Récréations Scientifiques' by Gaston Tissandier.

1881- England: Publication of 'Cassell's Book of Indoor Amusements, Card Games and Fireside Fun', which contains the earliest instructions for the paperfolding dependant games of Capping Verses, Reviews and Original Sketches and the Immovable Card magical effect.

1881 - The Netherlands: Publication of 'Het Vlechten' by Elise Van Calcar,

1882 - USA: Probable date of first publication of Part 2 of 'The Kindergarten Guide' by Maria Kraus-Boelte and John Kraus which includes the earliest known illustrations of, and instructions for making, among others, the King's Crown, the Duck, the Pig, the House and the Sofa, the Soldier's Cap, the Interwoven Star of David and Paper Chains.

1882 - England: Publication of 'Popular Scientific Recreations', an expanded English version of 'Les Récréations Scientifiques' by Gaston Tissandier.

1883 - Sicily: Publication of 'Giuochi Fanciulleschi Siciliani' by Giuseppe Pitri.

1884 - France: Publication of 'Jeux et Jouet du Jeune Age' by Gaston Tissandier.

1885 - France: Publication of the earliest known diagrams for the traditional Flapping Bird, and also the earliest known reference to this design of any kind, on page 336 of issue 661 of the French magazine La Nature.

1885 - Japan: Publication of 'Kindergarten Shoho' by Iijima Hanjuro, which contains the earliest known publication of crease pattermns / instructions for making the Fox Face, the Flat Lantern and the Kago (Sedan Chair). This book also contains the earliest known illustrations of the Jacket and the Lotus in Japan.

1886 - USA: Publication of the first diagrams for an early version of the Cut and Fold Model Aeroplane in an article titled 'About Flying Machines' in the April 1886 issue of the American children's magazine St Nicholas.

1887 - France: The first explanation of the Afghan Bands magical effect, under the name 'Les Anneaux Mysterieuse' appeared in 'La Nature' 709 of 1st January 1887.

1887 - Germany: Publication of 'Theoretisches und praktisches Handbuch der Fröbelschen Erziehungslehre' by Bertha von Marentholtz-Bülow.

1887 - USA: Mention of 'paper in the form of a drinking-cup' in T T Tiimayensis' 'A History of Magic' published in this year.

1887 - USA: The earliest known diagrams for the Lily (the four-petalled version of the Iris) and the Sanbo on Legs, under the somewhat surprising name of 'Nantucket Sinks', appear in the American children's magazine St Nicholas.

1888 - Spain: Publication of a memoir written by Miguel de Unamuno account entitled 'Historia de Unas Pajaritas de Papel', which describes how, in 1874, when he would have been 10, he and his cousin, who is not named, folded and played with paper pajaritas and other toys during the bombing of Bilbao during the Third Carlist War.

1889 - France: According to 'La Nature' of 28th September 1889 the Japanese exhibits at the Paris Exposition held in this year included paperfolding designs folded by the children of the Azabu private school in Tokyo. The designs mentioned include flowers, butterflies, marquetry designs, the crab, the junk (probably not the Chinese Junk) and the hat of Daimios (a demon), the parrot and the Blow-up Frog. Diagrams for the Blow-up Frog, which are the earliest known in the West, were also included in this issue.

1889 - England: Lewis Carroll recorded in his diary that on June 7th 1889 he folded a 'fishing boat' - probably a Chinese Junk - for the young Princess Alice and her brother, Duke of Albany.

1889 - USA: The first known publication of details of the Jacob's Ladder toy, derived from the Chinese Wallet, in the magazine Scientific American.

1889 - France: Publication of 'La Science Pratique' by Gaston Tissandier, which contains the earliest known publication of diagrams for the Patisserie Box.

1890 - England: Publication of 'Scientific Amusements' by Henry Frith.

1890/3 - France: Publication of 'La Science Amusante' by Tom Tit (real name Arthur Good).

1891 - England: Publication of 'Pleasant Work for Busy Fingers' by Maggie Browne which includes the earliest diagrams published in the West for the Love Knot Letterfold.

1891 - England: Earliest publication of diagrams for the Kettle variant of the Waterbomb in the Boy's Own Paper issue 628 of 24th January 1891.

1891 - France: Publication of diagrams for the Newspaper Ladder fold and cut effect in L'Illustration 2505 of 28th February 1891.

1892 - USA: Publication of 'Paper Folding and Cutting, by Katherine M Ball.

1892 - France: Publication of the Big Coin Through Small Hole magical effect in L'Illustration 2571 of 4th June 1892.

1893 - India: Publication of Tandalam Sundara Rao's book 'Geometrical Exercises in Paperfolding' which took the Froebelian concept of mathematical / geometrical paperfolds to a new level.

1893 - France: Publication of the Propellor / Helice design in L'Illustration 2608 of 18th February 1893 and of the method of folding a tube into a tetrahedron in L'Illustration 2643 of 21st October 1893.

1893 - France: Publication of 'L'Annee Preparatoire de Travail Manuel' by M P Martin, which includes the earliest known publication of Le Bonnet Carre, the Double Boat with Sail and the Flat-Bottomed Boat.

1893 - Spain: Publication of 'Medios de Instruir' by D Vicente Castro Legua which includes a drawing of the Wagon / El Carro.

1894 - England: Publication of diagams for a 'Chinese Love-Letter', a complex version of the design now known as the Lover's Knot, in the Boy's Own Paper.

1894 - France: Publication of 'Pour Amuser les Petits' by Tom Tit.

1894 - Spain: Publication of the article 'Pajaritologia' written by Senesio Delgado in the Spanish satirical magazine 'Madrid Comico, which may have influenced Miguel de Unamuno's later writings on Cocotologia.

1895 - The Netherlands: Publication of the Froebelian 'Course in Paperfolding', by Eleenore Heerwart.

1896 - Russia: Leo Tolstoy taught the ten year old F D Polenov (who grew up to become a famous painter) to fold a Flapping Bird while travelling on a train. The paper bird folded by Tolstoy on this journey still survives in the Polenov museum in Russia.

1896 - USA: Publication of 'Froebel's Occupations' by Kate Douglas Wiggin and Nora Archibald Smith.

1897 - England: Publication of Lois Bates' 'Kindergarten Guide', which contains the first known diagrams for the Blintz Box or Masu. This is also the earliest instance I know of where folding diagrams are presented in the form of a photo montage.

1899 - France: Publication of 'Le Livre des Amusettes' by Toto.

1900 - Germany: Publication of 'Die Frobelschen Beschaftigungen: Das Falten' by Marie Muller-Wunderlich which contains the earliest known illustrations of the Paper Cup

1900 - USA: Publication of 'What Shall We Do Now?' by Edward Verral Lucas and Elizabeth Lucas.

1902 - Argentina: Publication of a letter to the editor from Miguel de Unamuno in the Buenos Aires edition of 'Caras y Caretas' which was illustrated by a picture of his Perfect Paper Pajarita, an early version of the Avechucho.

1902 - Spain: Publication of 'Amor y pedagogía' by Miguel de Unamuno which was lengthened by the addition of a whimsical treatise on the Cocotte / Pajarita design titled 'Apuntes para un tratado de cocotología'.

1903 - Spain: Publication of 'La Ensenanza del Trabajo Manuel' by Pedro de Alcántara García and Teodosio Leal y Quiroga which contains the earliest known diagrams for the Magic Hat and the Rectangular Packet.

1904 - Spain: Publication of 'Guia Practica del Trabajo Manual Educativo'' by Ezequiel Solana, which contains the earliest known instructions for making the Monster Fish.

1905 - Argentina: The Buenos Aires edition of the magazine 'Caras y Caretas' carried an article containing diagrams for / explaining how to fold the Flapping Bird, the Blow-up Frog and the Newspaper Ladder. Photos in the article also show what appears to be the Magazine Cover Box (though the image is not completely clear) and a set of household items made by rolling and twisting paper which are otherwise unknown.

1906 - France: Publication of 'Les Bon Jeudis' by Tom Tit.

1908 - Spain: A cartoon showing various paperfolds appears in 'La Campana Catalana'.

1909 - Japan: Publication of 'Handicraft Teaching Materials and Teaching Methods' by Hideyoshi Okayama.4

1910 - Germany: Publication of 'Die Frobelschen Beschaftigungen' by Marie Muller-Wunderlich.

1914 - Spain: Publication of 'El Trabajo Manual en la Escuela' by Félix Martí Alpera.

1914 - The Netherlands: Around this date propaganda fold-ins are printed to show Kaiser William 2 as the Fifth Pig.

1914 - China: Publication of 'Illustrated Paperfolding' by Shaolie Gui which contains the earliest known diagrams for the Chrysanthemum Box.

1917 - USA: Diagrams for the Swallow paper plane appeared in the November 1917 issue of Popular Mechanics magazine.

1918 - England: Publication of 'Scientific Amusements' by C G Knott.

1919 - England: Publicaton of 'Paper Tricks' by Will Goldston.

1920 - England: Publication of 'Paper Magic' by Will Blyth which includes the earliest known diagrams for the Newspaper Tree, and Sword, the Swallow paper plane and the Ship's Wheel magical effect.

1922 - USA: Publication of 'Houdini's Paper Magic' which includes the earliest known diagrams published in the West for the Tematebako and the Kabuto.

1922 - Spain: Publication of 'Varaciones' by Ramon Gomez de la Serna containing an essay titled 'Unamuno, Venegas y la cocotologia' which is mostly an account of an interview with Miguel de Unamuno about cocotologia. It contains a description of a meeting between Miguel de Unamuno and Gandhi in which Don Miguel folded him a paper table.

1922 - Germany: Joseph Albers begins to teach experimental paperfolding and cutting at the Bauhaus, with an emphasis on the development of three-dimensional structures, as part of the introductory Volkurs course, which was mandatory for all new students.

1923 - England: Publication of 'More Paper Magic' by Will Blyth.

1924 - France: Publication of 'Joujoux en Papier' by Tom Tit which contains the earliest known diagrams for Le Cri du Veau, La Peniche and the earliest known diagrams for the Paper Cup.

1925 - France: According to Andre Breton the surrealist game 'Le Cadavre Exquis' or 'The Exquisite Corpse' was first used as a means to attempt to express subconscious thoughts in pictures at 54 rue du Chateau, Paris.

1926 - Germany: Publication of 'Papiergestaltung' by Paul Engelhardt and Adolf Lillack.

1927 - Germany: Publication of 'Ein Lustiges Faltbuchlein' by Johanna Huber.

1927/8 - Germany: Zig-zag corrugated surfaces and two concentric crease designs, the Hyperbolic Paraboloid and the Saddle, first appear in photographs taken at the Bauhaus by Erich Consemüller.

1928 - USA: Publication of 'Fun with Paperfolding' by William D Murray and Francis J Rigney which includes the earliest known appearance in the historical record of the Pagoda, The Paper Boat Snapper and the Cradle, and the earliest known diagrams for the Sanbo on Legs.

1931 - Japan: Publication of 'Origami Part One' by Isao Honda which includes the earliest known publication of the Carrier Pigeon, the Crane Envelope, the Dove, the Hibachi, the Fat Sparrow, the Japanese House, the Goldfish, the Lily (the four-petalled version of the Iris), the Mushikago, the Nagakabuto, the Nesting Crane, the Star-shaped Box and the earliest known publication of the Western paperfold the Pig in Japan.

1932 - Japan: Publication of 'Origami Part Two' by Isao Honda, which includes the earliest known publication of the Flapping Dove.

1932 - Spain: The magazine 'Estampa' carried a two page article about Miguel de Unamuno's paperfolding which included photographs of several of his original designs.

1932 - England: Publication of 'Winter Nights Entertainments' by R M Abraham which includes the earliest known appearance in the historical record of the Snapdragon and the Wild Man from Borneo.

1932 - France: Publication of 'Images A Plier', a series of six booklets by M R Chasles, which contains the earliest known diagrams for the Flapping Butterfly and Le Moineau, the Shelf, Le Porte-Allumettes and the earliest known publication in the West of diagrams for the the Fat Sparrow, the Paper Crane / Orizuru and the Mushikago.

1932 - Spain: Publication of 'Figuras de Papel'.

1933 - Argentina: The Buenos Aires edition of 'Caras y Caretas' carried an article about the paperfolding of Miguel de Unamuno.

1933 - England: Publication of 'Diversions and Pastimes' by R M Abraham.

1934 - Spain: Publication of the second edition of Miguel de Unamuno's 'Amor y pedagogía' which contained an 'Apendice' to his 'Apuntes para un tratado de cocotología' which contained new Cocotte / Pajarita variations.

1937 - England: Publication of 'Paper Toy Making' by Margaret Campbell which contains the earliest known diagrams for the Lover's Knot, the Plaited Belt, the Fold and Slit Paper Lantern, the Fat Sparrow, the Sampan,and the Blintzed Bird Base Kusudama, some of which are possibly traditional Japanese rather than Western designs.

1939 - USA: Discovery of the hexaflexagon by Arthur Stone, an English graduate student at Princeton.

1939 - Spain: Publication of 'El Mundo de Papel' by Nemesio Montero, which includes the first publication of the Donkey with Panniers, the Mysterious Windmill, La pistola de dos canones, the Sou'wester, the Trough and the Whizzer.

1940 - England: Publication of 'At Home Tonight' by Herbert McKay.

1940 - Argentina: Publication of 'El Plegado y Cartonaje en la Escuela Primaria' by Antonio M Luchia and Corina Luciani de Luchia.

1941 - USA: Publication of 'After The Dessert' by Martin Gardner, which contains the Improvised Brassiere napkin folding effect and the Turning a Bank Note Upside Down magical trick.

1946 - England: First publication of folding instructions for any paperfolding design, in this case the Flapping Bird, in the Rupert Bear Annual.

1948 - USA: Publication of 'The Art of Chinese Paperfolding' by Maying Soong which includes the earliest publication of diagrams for the Blow-Up Bunny and the Inside Out Boat.

1949 - France: Publication of 'Au Pays des Mains Agiles'.

1951 - Spain: Publication of a revised and expanded edition of 'El Mundo de Papel' by Dr Nemesio Montero.

1952 - France: Publication of 'Bibliography of Paper Folding' by Gershon Legman.

1955 - The Netherlands: Exhibition of paperfolds designed and folded by Akira Yoshizawa held at the Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam.

1956 - England: Publication of 'Paper Magic' by Robert Harbin.

1957 - Japan: Publication of 'Origami Dokuhon 1' by Akira Yoshizawa.

1958 - Japan: Publication of 'Origami Zukan' by Okimasa Uchiyama.

1958 - USA: Founding of The Origami Centre in New York by Lillian Oppenheimer which eventually became OrigamiUSA.

1959 - USA: Exhibition entitled 'Plane Geometry and Fancy Figures: The Art and Technique of Paper Folding' held at the Cooper Union Museum for the Arts of Decoration in New York.

1961 - England: Publication of 'Paperfolding Fun' by Robert Harbin.

1961 - USA: Publication of 'The Art of Origami' by Samuel Randlett.

1962 - USA: Publication of 'Folding Paper Puppets' by Shari Lewis and Lillian Oppenheimer.

1963 - England: Publication of 'Secrets of Origami' by Robert Harbin.

1963 - USA: Publication of 'Folding Paper Toys' by Shari Lewis and Lillian Oppenheimer which contains the earliest known diagrams for the Jumping Frog.

1964 - USA: First publication of Fold-Ins in Mad Magazine.

1965 - Japan: Publication of 'The World of Origami' by Isao Honda.

1965 - USA: Publication of 'Folding Paper Masks' by Shari Lewis and Lillian Oppenheimer.

1967 - USA: Publication of subscription adverts in Mad Magazine featuring origami by Giuseppi Baggi. Possibly the earliest adverts to use paperfolding to promote something that was not itself paperfolding related.