Origami Heaven

A paperfolding paradise

The website of writer and paperfolding designer David Mitchell

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Froebelian Forms of Beauty
 
This page attempts to record what is known about Froebelian Forms of Beauty, symmetrical geometric designs which were folded in the Kindergarten as part of the Froebelian occupation of Falten (paperfolding). Please contact me if you know any of this information is incorrect or if you have any other information that should be added. Thank you.

I have not made a study of the various Fold of Beauty forms, given them standard names or recorded them on individual pages.

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1859

As far as I know Froebelian Forms of Beauty, here called 'figures artistique', first appear in 'Manuel pratique des jardins d'enfants de Frédéric Froebel', which was compiled by J F Jacobs and published by F Claassen in Brussells and L Hachette and Cie in Paris in 1859.

Plate LIII below shows four Forms of Beauty developed from the Double Blintz Basic Form (a square that has been blintzed, turned over and blintzed again) two from one side and two from the other (pictures 10 to 13).

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1861

'Das Paradies der Kindheit' (The Paradise of Childhood) by Lina Morgenstern, which was published in Leipzig in 1861, contains a chapter on Das Papierfalten which briefly refers to 'Schonheitsformen' (Forms of Beauty), and provides a list which translates, roughly, as 'the Simple Flower, the Star, the Rose, the Filled Rose, the Rosette etc.' Unfortunately there are no illustrations to allow us to identify what these forms looked like.

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1862

'Das Frobel'sche Faltblatt' (Frobel's Folding Sheet) ) by August Kohler, which was published by Hermann Bohlau in Weimar in 1862, is a guide to the use of a series of paperfolds to teach geometrical ideas in the kindergarten. The main sequence begins with the unfolded square and ends with the Double Blintz Basic Form, at which point the author comments, roughly, 'We finally get the basic form ... from which one can learn the most varied forms of life and beauty ...' However no examples of such forms are given in the book.

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1869

'Der Kindergarten' by Hermann Goldammer, which was published by Habel in Berlin in 1869, contains two plates which illustrate 'Schonheitsformen' (Form of Beauty) developed from the blintzed square, the Windmill Base and the Double Blintz Basic Form.

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The same illustrations are to be found in 'Paradise of Childhood' by Edward Wiebe, which was published by Milton, Bradley and Company in Springfield, Massachusetts, also in 1869.

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1873

'Exercices et Travaux pour les Enfants Selon la Méthode et les Procédés de Pestalozzi et de Froebel' by Fanny and Charles Delon, which was published by Librairie Hachette in Paris in 1873, contains illustrations of Forms of Beauty developed from the Double Blintz Basic Fold, the windmill Base and the Windmill.

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Pictures 1 and 13 of Plate XXIII of 'Die Praxis Des Kindergartens' by Auguste Koehler, which was published by Herman Bohlau in Weimar in 1873, show the two sides of the Double Blintz Basic Form from the two sides of which which patterns 2 to 12 and 14 to 28 can be derived. Pictures 27 and 28 show two more complex groundforms from which other patterns can be derived.

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Schonheitsformen (Forms of Beauty) also appear in:

1874

The third edition of 'Der Kindergarten' by Hermann Goldammer, which was published by Carl Babel in Berlin in 1874, contains three plates picturing various Forms of Beauty. Plate 41 series A shows forms developed from one side of the Double Blintz Basic Form and Plate 41 series B shows forms developed from the other side. Plates 42 and 43 show forms developed from the Windmill Base.

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1880

'The Kindergarten Principle' by Mary J Lyschinska, which was published in London in 1880 by Wm Isbister Ltd contains a small section devoted to Forms of Beauty under the name of 'Symmetrical Forms'.

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1882

'The Kindergarten Guide' by Maria Kraus Boelte and John Kraus, which was first published in single volume form by E. Steiger and Company in New York in 1882, shows how to fold 'forms of symmetry; from squares, oblongs and equilateral triangles. The book also explains how to take some osimple forms and use them as tiles to create larger, compound designs.

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'Le Travail Manuel a L'ecole Primaire' by Jully & Rocheron, which was published by Librairie Classique Eugene Belin in Paris in 1892.

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1887

Part 2 'Die Praxis' of 'Theoretisches und praktisches Handbuch der Fröbelschen Erziehungslehre' by Bertha von Marentholtz-Bülow, which was published by George H Wigand in Kassel in 1887.

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'Cours de Travail Manuel (Pour les Garcons) - Premiere Partie - Cours Elementaire' by A Planty, which was published by Gedalge Jeune in Paris in 1887.

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1894

'Jeux et Occupations Pour les Petits: Guide des Mčres et des Institutrices' by Henriette Suzanne Brés was published by Librairie Classique Fernand Nathan in Paris in 1894 contains illustrations of designs developed from the blintzed square and the Double Blintz Basic Form.

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1895

'Der Kindergarten' by A S Fischer, which was published by Alfred Holder in Wien in 1895, contains a plate showing designs which are developable from a simple blintzed square by manipulating the blintzes.

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'L'enseignement manuel dans les ecoles du degre primaire (garcons)' by Rene Leblanc was published by Librairie Larousse in Paris in 1895.

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'Geometrie, Dessin et Travaux Manuels - Cours Moyen', produced under the direction of M E. Cazes, was published by Librairie Ch. Delagrave in Paris in 1895.

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1898

'Travaux Recreatifs Pour les Enfants de 4 a 10 Ans' by Marie Koenig, which was published by Librairie Hachette et Cie in Paris in 1898 contains two pages of craft activities using a basic 'forms of beauty' design.

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1909

A number of square patterns developed from the Double Blintz Basic Form appear in 'Petit Manuel de Travaux d'Amateurs' by H de Graffigny, which was published by Collection A L Guyot in Paris in 1909.

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